Text: Subject: Add
No. English Farsi Pashto Subject
1 marginal cost/revenue: see incremental cost/revenue - - Accounting
2 margin of safety: the amount a company's sales can drop before they reach the break-even point, that is, before they start to lose money; can be expressed in dollars or units or as a percentage. - - Accounting
3 managerial accounting: a process of interpreting, analyzing and reporting detailed financial and non-financial information to assist internal users (e.g. management) in decision-making; generally, the information provided is future-focused (e.g. budgets) and does not require adherence to GAAP. - - Accounting
4 make or buy decision: involves using relevant revenues and expenses to make a choice between producing a product internally or purchasing it from an external source. - - Accounting
5 major repairs: materially significant expenditures that are capitalized because they increase the future economic benefit of the asset. - - Accounting
6 long-term liabilities: debts that are due after one year from the date of the statement of financial position. - - Accounting
7 long-term assets: also called long-lived assets; tangible, intangible and financial assets that a company expects to hold or to use for longer than one year or the company's operating cycle. - - Accounting
8 leasehold improvements: capital expenditures for additions and/or renovations to leased property that are paid for by the lessee but revert to the lessor at the end of the lease term. Leasehold improvements are recorded as a capital asset by the lessee, and should be depreciated over the term of the lease, or the useful life of the asset (whichever is shorter). - - Accounting
9 lease back: a situation in which one party (seller-lessee) sells an asset to the second party (purchaser-lessor) and then immediately leases the asset back; could be considered a form of financing. - - Accounting
10 lease: a contract between two parties whereby one party (the lessee) receives the right to use an asset owned by the other party (the lessor) for a specific period of time (the term) in exchange for periodic payments. - - Accounting
11 last-in, first out (LIFO): an inventory valuation method that assumes the inventory items purchased or produced last are the first items sold; during times of inflation results in a higher cost of goods sold (lower tax) and an undervaluation of ending inventory; not allowed under IFRS. - - Accounting
12 just-in-time (JIT): a system in which production time and costs are minimized by not delivering raw materials, components and parts etc. to the manufacturing process until the time they are actually required (JIT manufacturing system); or inventory carrying costs are minimized because products are not produced until they have been ordered (JIT inventory system). - - Accounting
13 joint products: two or more distinct products that appear at exactly the same time from a single production process; products can be individually identified at the split-off point, which is the point where the single process ends. - - Accounting
14 joint cost: production costs up to the point (split-off point) where two or more products can be identified separately. - - Accounting
15 job order costing: a system for determining the manufacturing cost (direct materials, direct labour, and manufacturing overhead) for a single item or a batch of homogeneous items; often associated with custom orders. - - Accounting