Afghanistan’s path from empire to nation-state in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries established enduring conditions for ethnic conflict and resistance to modernization in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Its turbulent history has been marked by recurring patterns of political centralization, then concessions to tribal authorities; resistance to foreign influence, then foreign intervention; and support for modernization, then reaction against it.
Tertiary / Higher Education
Learning Resource Type
USAF History and Museums Program
CC 0 / public domain
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